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Equipment reliability and management is critical in process industries such as those that manufacture glass and ceramic products. Effective maintenance of
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) = Availability x Performance x Quality
• Availability = operating time/planned production time
• Performance = ideal cycle time/(operating time/total pieces)
• Performance = (total pieces/operating time)/ideal run rate
Source: Obstacles (The Basics of Total Maintenance, TPM), www.tvss.net/pm/tpm.htm.
assets in those industries is paramount in overall operational efficiency due to the capital investments required.
Most manufacturing operations continually look for ways to improve and drive down waste by reducing or eliminating lost production time due to machine failures. In addition, the glass industry requires highly skilled resources to run processes. People who have years of hands-on experience (supplemented by industry-specific training) are often needed to manage the equipment. In these situations, total productive maintenance (TPM) can be a beneficial management strategy.
The TPM Philosophy
In many cases, maintenance has been viewed as a separate function from the manufacturing process. In other words, the manufacturing group runs the process and makes the product; when things go wrong with the equipment—or when scheduled maintenance is required—the maintenance staff is called.
Not so with TPM. Total productive maintenance is not a tool, but a management philosophy that strives to integrate equipment maintenance into the manufacturing process. It does so through a system designed to ensure that machinery and equipment are always available to manufacture products (uptime) by minimizing rework and maximizing cycle time and resource usage. The bottom line is providing the maximum value for the customer at the minimum cost.
With this understanding as a backdrop, a simple definition of TPM states that “the goal of any TPM program is to eliminate losses tied to equipment maintenance or, in other words, keep equipment producing only good product, as fast as possible with no unplanned downtime.”1
Pioneered by the Japanese firm Nippon Denso, a manufacturer of automotive components and a member of the Toyota group, TPM is part of the lean manufacturing philosophy. The textbook definition of TPM is “a plant improvement methodology which enables continuous and rapid improvement through use of employee involvement, employee empowerment, and closed-loop measurement of results.”2
In addition, TPM can be summarized as “a well-defined and time-tested concept for maintaining plants and equipment. TPM can be considered the science of machinery health.”3 The concept was introduced to achieve the following objectives:4
• Avoid waste in a quickly changing economic environment
• Produce goods without reducing product quality
• Reduce costs
• Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time
• Send only non-defective parts to the customers
The Basics of TPM
Since its beginnings, TPM has been built around what are referred to as the five pillars (see Figure 1). As the philosophy was implemented, a number of variations developed that include a more visible integration of lean and safety.
The five pillars are:
- Increase equipment effectiveness
- Autonomous maintenance
- Early equipment management
- Planned and preventative maintenance.
Increase Equipment Effectiveness
This element focuses on the data side of managing equipment performance and process results. Williamson, in his article, “TPM: An Often Misunderstood Equipment Improvement Strategy,” stresses that the focus of this element is improving overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) by targeting the major losses, as listed below:5
• Planned shutdown losses: no production, breaks and/or shift changes; planned maintenance
• Downtime losses: equipment failure or breakdowns, setups and changeovers, tooling or part changes, startup and adjustment
• Performance efficiency losses: minor stops or delays, reduced speed or cycle time
• Quality losses: scrap product/output, defects or rework, yield or process transition losses
As one user of TPM points out, the “effectiveness of production equipment depends upon ensuring the required levels of availability and optimum capacity utilization while minimizing the use of resources. OEE allows you to do that.”6 For more information on OEE, see the sidebar.
Training also inevitably plays a major role in any organization focused on lean and Kaizen processes. This is particularly important in TPM as “operators are accepting greater responsibility for the health and performance of their equipment as they take on certain maintenance tasks that historically were performed by maintenance crafts people.”7 Taking this into consideration and working with your training department, the recommended approach to training should be as follows:
A training needs analysis should be performed for the different people working in the plant. Each pillar, such as planned maintenance, should be trained on maintenance-related courses, while a focused improvement group should be well versed on different analytical tools and techniques. Likewise, operators should be trained with proper operation and safety on their equipment. Education and training is a continuous process and should be provided to all employees.8
In the TPM process, the continual upgrade of employee skills and capabilities should not be underused.
Robert M. Williamson of Strategic Work Systems, Inc. and author of “The Basic Pillars of Total Productive Maintenance” highlights the importance of autonomous maintenance, stating that operators must be involved in daily maintenance of their equipment. He writes:
Operator involvement must be defined in ways that make sense in your work culture. There are tasks that operators can do without using any tools: clean and inspect equipment. In every company that I have studied or visited or worked for, the thing that they get the most return on investment in the early stages of TPM is operators learning how to inspect their equipment and pay attention to key things. It doesn’t take any tools or special skills; you just have to know what to look for. Maintenance people can teach the operators what to look and listen for.9
Early Equipment Management
Early equipment management (EEM) stresses the importance of continually working to achieve operator/maintenance-friendly equipment through documentation and applying lessons learned on existing equipment. This learning can then by applied when new equipment is planned or when equipment rebuild and updates are planned. By having a process for documenting lessons learned and related improvements, the improvements can wbe readily integrated into new equipment during the concept, design, and installation phase(s).
Darren Dolcemascolo, an internationally recognized lecturer, author, and consultant, sums up the essence of EEM by stating that:
Early equipment management is a system for dealing with problems that surface during test-running, commissioning, and start-up of new equipment. During this period, production and maintenance engineering people must correct problems caused by poor selection of materials at the design stage, errors occurring during fabrication of the equipment, or installation errors. In an ideal world, early equipment management should not be very complicated (particularly if maintenance prevention design is properly applied at the design stage).10
Planned and Preventive Maintenance
Strategos, the Kansas City-based engineering and strategy consulting firm that has expertise in such areas as lean, cellular manufacturing strategy, and value-stream mapping, emphasizes that:
Planned maintenance is the deliberate planning and scheduling of maintenance activities, as opposed to reacting to breakdowns and emergencies. A maintenance department that uses TPM effectively generally devotes less than 10% of its labor hours to such unplanned activities. Without TPM, it is not unusual for 80%-90% of the labor to be unplanned. Unplanned maintenance is a strong indicator that prevention and improvement programs are non-existent or ineffective. In addition, high percentages of unplanned maintenance creates problems.11
Many worldwide users of TPM recognize that it is an operating philosophy and not a program, requiring that implementation begins at the top. A TPM system must begin with commitment to the philosophy by management. This means the leadership of the organization supports and puts forth a new workplace standard, not just the “new quality plan of the month.”
Management must also recognize that TPM is not a one-day fix, but a critical operating philosophy that takes time. One consultant asserted that TPM can typically take three or more years to fully implement. Once a foundation is in place, the second requirement for implementation should be to train employees in the philosophy.
The recommended training for TPM implementation should be done in three parts. First is leadership training. The leadership and supervisory staff of the organization need to learn and adopt the philosophy in order to demonstrate dedication to the new standard and inspire employees to embrace TPM.
A number of training resources are available to large and smaller organizations. Examples include Productivity Inc., a consulting and training firm that helps organizations build new capabilities, save money, and grow; and Gemba Academy LLC, which provides high-quality online video training for individuals and groups. In addition, many smaller communities have regional development centers that are linked to private, non-profit technology consulting organizations to help small and mid-size manufacturers and high-tech startups become more competitive.
Productivity Press Inc. published a book entitled TPM for Supervisors, based on the works of Kunio Shirose. His content suggests the following for leadership training:12
• Causes of breakdowns and defects
• What is total productive maintenance
• Characteristics and goals of TPM
• Eliminating equipment losses
• Autonomous maintenance activities in production
• Companywide cooperation in TPM
Once the leadership foundation is in place, the second phase of training begins with the employees. This is done by selecting a department or production line as a pilot for TPM implementation and then training the employees in the philosophy. Upon successful completion of the pilot, leadership should develop a roll-out plan, along with the associated training for the remaining employees.
Employee training should include the following:
• Overview and history of TPM
• The five pillars
• Six big losses of TPM
• When and how to get the pieces together for a productive system
• Teams and maintenance
• Working with support functions (e.g., purchasing, engineering, scheduling, etc.)
• Foundations for continuous improvement
• Lean tools overview (e.g., Kaizen,5S, SMED, mistake proofing, visual workplace)
Like many other initiatives, users have provided lessons learned to help future successes. A power company that applied TPM provides the following advice, stating that “implementation of TPM also has a few obstacles, crucial among them being lack of management support and understanding, sufficient training, and time for the evolution of TPM. Thus, successful implementation of TPM demands commitment, structure and direction.”13
Benefits of TPM
A number of benefits have been documented as a result of TPM implementation. It is typical to see such benefits as shared responsibility through increased employee involvement, improvement of mean time between failure, mean time to repair improvements, raising the consciousness of hidden losses, and OEE improvements. But more specifically, another perspective on expected benefits states:
Adhering to TPM practices is timesaving; rather than needing hours to weeks for costly repairs or replacements, workers expend some time daily to ensure proper functioning of their respective machines and areas. As they become more familiar with the maintenance and operational requirements of their equipment, workers can then transition from preventive maintenance into predictive maintenance, wherein they are so familiar with the inner workings and demands of the machine that some upgrades or replacement can be anticipated and performed before anything goes wrong. This mode is very cost-effective; generally with predictive maintenance, there will be no exorbitant emergency costs. Rather, those tools and supplies needed for daily essential upkeep, as well as foreseen upgrades, will be consistently stocked. You’re controlling your costs; you’re predicting your maintenance needs, both short- and long-term.14
TPM provides quantitative results as seen in the experience highlighted by a world leader in production plants for the ceramic sector: “At the conclusion of all activities, an OEE increment up to 80%, from a starting value of 60-62%, is expected. The solution presents a pay-back period between seven to 15 months.”15
Total productive maintenance is a paradigm shift that focuses everyone in the organization toward improved equipment effectiveness. TPM is not a short-term fix,
|Total productive maintenance is a paradigm shift that focuses everyone in the organization toward improved equipment effectiveness. TPM is not a short-term fix, but a never-ending journey that drives the plant toward world-class performance.|
but a never-ending journey that drives the plant toward world-class performance. To ensure success, users have emphasized the importance of maintaining an outlook toward:
• Ongoing management commitment
• Increasing employee responsibilities
• Applying cross-functional teams
• Understanding and fixing root causes
• Discipline, standardization and simplification
• Kaizen (continuous improvement) never stops
TPM can be a valuable strategy for glass and ceramic manufacturing operations.
For more information, contact the author at (607) 974-8179 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. “(TPM) Total Productive Maintenance,” www.vorne.com/learning-center/tpm.htm.
2. New, Ellis, “Taking Autonomous Maintenance Beyond Routine Care and Maintenance,” www.productivityinc.com/pdf/Taking_Autonomous_Maintenance_Beyond_Routine_Care_and_Inspection.pdf.
3. “Introduction to TPM,” www.scribd.com/doc/92593758/Introduction-to-TPM.
5. Williamson, Robert M., “TPM: An Often Misunderstood Equipment Improvement Strategy,” www.mt-online.com/april2000/tpm-an-often-misunderstood-equipment-improvement-strategy.
6. “Increasing Overall Equipment Effectiveness OEE,” www.ipa.fraunhofer.de/Increasing_Overall_Equipment_Effectiveness_OEE.388.0.html?&L=2.
7. “Total Productive Maintenance,” www.rsareliability.com/TPM%20Materials.pdf.
9. Williamson, Robert M., “The Basic Pillars of Total Productive Maintenance,” www.mt-online.com/october2000/the-basic-pillars-of-total-productive-maintenance.
10. Dolcemascolo, D., “Total Productive Maintenance Overview,” www.emsstrategies.com/dd050104article.html.
11. “Pillars of TPM - Modeling TPM’s Structure,” www.strategosinc.com/tpm_pillars_4.htm.
12. TPM for Supervisors, Productivity Press Inc., 1992, Portland, Ore.
13. “The Basics Of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM),” www.tvss.net/pm/tpm.htLLUSTRATIONA.
14. “The Benefits of TPM,” www.labelprinter.com/tpm/tpm-benefits.php.
15. Ferrari E., Pareschi, A., Persona, A., Ragattieri, A, “TPM: Situation and Procedure for a Soft Introduction in Italian Factories,” The TPM Magazine, Volume 14, Number 6, 2002, p. 357.