In general terms, transduction refers to the conversion of energy from one form to another. In terms of piezoelectric transducers, it means the conversion of electrical to mechanical energy and/or vice-versa. This is made possible by the inclusion of active piezoceramic components in the transducer, and can take place in a variety of mediums (e.g., air, liquid, etc.) using a variety of transducer designs.
The piezo transducer’s ability to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy (and vice-versa) makes the generation and detection of sound waves possible. Transducers that generate audible-range sound waves can be used as speakers, buzzers, alarms, etc., while transducers that generate ultrasonic-range sound waves (above 20 KHz) can be used to measure distance in various mediums, determine flow rates in fluids, monitor fluid levels in vessels, atomize liquids, perform medical imaging, weld plastics or metals, monitor structural health, etc.