Automotive exhaust purification systems were developed in the early 1970s in response to smog in the Los Angeles basin, legislation in California, and the 1970 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments, where the latter set specific goals for reduction of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by the mid-1970s.
Grinding or cutting is a process whereby an abrasive particle embedded in a rotating wheel or knife edge removes material from a workpiece by mechanical means. The grinding wheel can be attached to a horizontal or vertical spindle, and the specimen can be mounted on a table surface that travels in either a rotary or reciprocating direction.
During firing, a glaze applied on a ceramic body undergoes several transformations, including water loss from the clay components, glass transition and softening. During the softening phase, the glaze starts to melt, giving rise to a continuous liquid layer.
Measuring the elastic properties of a green ceramic as it is being fired can be difficult and often requires sophisticated non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. One effective method is called the the impulse excitation technique (IET).
Acoustic micro-imaging tools perform the non-destructive imaging and analysis of internal features (including anomalies and defects) in advanced ceramics and other materials by pulsing ultrasound into the sample and receiving the return echoes.
In today’s manufacturing world, materials production and supply have grown increasingly complex. Business moves quickly, information is exchanged across the globe almost instantaneously, and pressure for immediate performance can be extremely high—even in industries that require long production cycles. As a result, product shipment and quality assurance can often struggle to keep up with the breakneck pace and expectations.
Shedding light on the molecule-ion interplay on the surface of an organic-inorganic perovskite crystal could help improve future solar cells.
February 1, 2016
Organic-inorganic perovskite materials are key components of the new generation of solar cells. Understanding the properties of these materials is important for improving the lifetime and quality of solar cells.
A newly developed glass-polymer hybrid electrolyte addresses challenges in solid-state lithium batteries.
February 1, 2016
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a novel electrolyte for use in solid-state lithium batteries that overcomes many of the problems that plague other solid electrolytes while also showing signs of being compatible with next-generation cathodes.