Many processed materials need to be thermally dried under controlled conditions. Most drying is done in open atmosphere or oxidizing ovens in batch, continuous belt, or tunnel feed styles. However, certain materials require protection from oxygen or other atmospheric contaminants during or after drying.
Tungsten mesh has been in use for high-temperature furnace heating since the early 1960s. Tungsten mesh elements came into popularity because they were shown to be more durable than the earlier sheet-style elements.